1. Both instructions must be simple.
2. Shifts or rotates can only pair in the U pipe.
(SHL, SHR, SAL, SAR, ROL, ROR, RCL or RCR)
3. ADC and SBB can only pair in the U pipe.
4. JMP, CALL and Jcc can only pair in the V pipe. (Jcc = jump on condition code).
5. Neither instruction can contain BOTH a displacement and an immediate operand. For example:
mov [bx+2], 3 ; 2 is a displacement, 3 is immediate mov mem1, 4 ; mem1 is a displacement, 4 is immediate
6. Prefixed instructions can only pair in the U pipe. This includes extended instructions that start with 0Fh except for the special case of the 16-bit conditional jumps of the 386 and above. Examples of prefixed instructions:
mov ES:[bx], mov eax, [si] ; 32-bit operand in 16-bit code segment mov ax, [esi] ; 16-bit operand in 32-bit code segment
7. The U pipe instruction must be only 1 byte in length or it will not pair until the second time it executes from the cache.
8. There can be no read-after-write or write-after-write register dependencies between the instructions except for special cases for the flags register and the stack pointer (rules 9 and 10).
mov ebx, 2 ; writes to EBX add ecx, ebx ; reads EBX and ECX, writes to ECX ; EBX is read after being written, no pairing mov ebx, 1 ; writes to EBX mov ebx, 2 ; writes to EBX ; write after write, no pairing
9. The flags register exception allows an ALU instruction to be paired with a Jcc even though the ALU instruction writes the flags and Jcc reads the flags. For example:
cmp al, 0 ; CMP modifies the flags je addr ; JE reads the flags, but pairs dec cx ; DEC modifies the flags jnz loop1 ; JNZ reads the flags, but pairs
10. The stack pointer exception allows two PUSHes or two POPs to be paired even though they both read and write to the SP (or ESP) register.
push eax ; ESP is read and modified push ebx ; ESP is read and modified, but still pairs
The following is a list of simple instructions, as required by rule
Instruction format 16-bit example 32-bit example ------------------------------------------------------------ MOV reg, reg mov ax, bx mov eax, edx MOV reg, mem mov ax, [bx] mov eax, [edx] MOV reg, imm mov ax, 1 mov eax, 1 MOV mem, reg mov [bx], ax mov [edx], eax MOV mem, imm mov [bx], 1 mov [edx], 1 alu reg, reg add ax, bx cmp eax, edx alu reg, mem add ax, [bx] cmp eax, [edx] alu reg, imm add ax, 1 cmp eax, 1 alu mem, reg add [bx], ax cmp [edx], eax alu mem, imm add [bx], 1 cmp [edx], 1 where alu = add, adc, and, or, xor, sub, sbb, cmp, test INC reg inc ax inc eax INC mem inc var1 inc [eax] DEC reg dec bx dec ebx DEC mem dec [bx] dec var2 PUSH reg push ax push eax POP reg pop ax pop eax LEA reg, mem lea ax, [si+2] lea eax, [eax+4*esi+8] JMP near jmp label jmp lable2 CALL near call proc call proc2 Jcc near jz lbl jnz lbl2 where Jcc = ja, jae, jb, jbe, jg, jge, jl, jle, je, jne, jc, js, jnp, jo, jp, jnbe, jnb, jnae, jna, jnle, jnl, jnge, jng, jz, jnz, jnc, jns, jpo, jno, jpe NOP nop nop shift reg, 1 shl ax, 1 rcl eax, 1 shift mem, 1 shr [bx], 1 rcr [ebx], 1 shift reg, imm sal ax, 2 rol esi, 2 shift mem, imm sar ax, 15 ror [esi], 31 where shift = shl, shr, sal, sar, rcl, rcr, rol, ror
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